Upland areas in England .

 

Wordt aan gewerkt !

Uplands:

Ik neem als definitie: alle land hoger dan 1000 feet (= ± 300 m ).
Op de kaart hieronder is dat dus oranje + rood.
( Lowland is lager dan ± 300 m, dus de rest ( blauw, groen, geel ).
In het algemeen geldt dat de uplands natter, koeler en winderiger zijn en
hun bodems minder productief.
Daar staat tegenover dat er veel mooie en wilde stukken bij zijn.
Om een eerste indruk te krijgen wat uplands inhoudt zie de volgende website:

www.rspb.org.uk/our-work/our-positions-and-casework/our-positions/agriculture
-and-land-use/farming-land-use-and-nature/uplands/


Various definitions of upland have been made, e.g.
- land above a certain altitude (e.g. 300 m), or
- land above the upper limit of enclosed farmland,
- etc.
In the upland areas we find many of the wildest and most beautiful parts of our countryside and the largest areas of natural-looking vegetation.

...Upland areas in England .)(.

• Als je een lijn trekt net ten oosten van Dartmoor richting de North York Moors, zie je dat
.. Dartmoor, Exmoor, Peak District (onderdeel van de Pennines) en de North York Moors
.. veel rode kleur hebben (= gebied boven de 300 m). Zij behoren dus tot de uplands.
• Het gebied ten zuidoosten daarvan ligt lager dan driehonderd meter (Lowland Great Britain).
.. In bijv. de Cotswolds is de hoogste top (Cleeve Hill ) wel 330 m, maar vrijwel het hele plateau
.. ligt ruim onder de 300 m. Ook andere heuvelruggen in het zuidoosten behoren tot de lowlands.
.. Denk aan bijv. North Downs, South Downs, The Chilterns, etc.
• There is an important division between:
.. - the cooler, wetter north and west (upland Great Britain), and
.. - the warmer, drier south and east (lowland Great Britain).

Ten zuiden van de Shropshire Hills zie je nog een rood vlekje. Dit is de oostelijke rand van de
.. Black Mountains in Wales. Zie daarvoor verder bij Wales.



Upland areas (from north to south) :
(Tussen haakjes staat het hoogste punt)

 Cheviot Hills (815 m),

 Pennines (893 m), dividing east and west,

 Lake District (978 m), containing the highest mountains in the country.
.......................................

 North York Moors (454 m),

 Shropshire Hills (540 m),

 Exmoor (520 m),

Dartmoor (621 m).


Om de uplands van Engeland, Wales en Schotland onderling te kunnen
vergelijken, volgt hieronder een kaart met alle uplands van heel Groot-Brittannië.
Je ziet daar dat Schotland een groot oppervlak heeft zelfs boven de 2500 feet
(760 m). Wales en Noord-Engeland echter maar weinig.

...Upland areas in Great Britain.).
.
• uplands = lichtbruin + donkerbruin ......... lowlands = wit.




En Wales is zelfs grotendeels Upland Wales (Hoog-Wales).
.. Alleen de lagere delen langs de kust en in Pembrokeshire zijn Lowland.
.. ( Zie bijv. het hoogteprofiel bij mijn pagina van Glyndwr's Way.
..... Daar wandel je tussen de 400m en 500 m hoogte )


...UK .Topographic . Map..


 

To the south of that line, there are larger areas of flatter land, including East Anglia and the Fens, although hilly areas include the Cotswolds, the Chilterns, and the North and South Downs.


Upland habitats:
Covering around a third of the UK’s land surface, upland habitats form the bulk
of our wildest, most scenic and possibly most romantic countryside.
The setting for many atmospheric novels from Wuthering Heights to
The Hound of the Baskervilles, uplands are the open habitats of
mountains, moors, heaths, bogs and rough grasslands.
Most of our upland habitats are found in Scotland, Wales and Northern England, though there are areas of moorland in South West England and Northern Ireland.
Zie: www.wildlifetrusts.org/wildlife/habitats/upland

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The highland zone of England and Wales consists, from north to south, of four broad upland masses: the  Pennines, the Cumbrian Mountains, the Cambrian Mountains, and the South West Peninsula. The Pennines are usually considered to end in the north at the River Tyne gap, but the surface features of several hills in Northumberland are in many ways similar to those of the northern Pennines. The general surface of the asymmetrically arched backbone (anticline) of the Pennines is remarkably smooth because many of the valleys, though deep, occupy such a small portion of the total area that the windswept moorland between them appears almost featureless. This is particularly true of the landscape around Alston, in Cumbria (Cumberland), which—cut off by faults on its north, west, and south sides—stands out as an almost rectangular block of high moorland plateau with isolated peaks (known to geographers as  monadnocks) rising up above it. Farther south, deep and scenic dales (valleys) dissect the Pennine plateau. The dales’ craggy sides are formed of millstone grit, and beneath them flow streams stepped by waterfalls. The most southerly part of the Pennines is a grassy upland. More than 2,000 feet (610 metres) above sea level in places, it is characterized by the dry valleys, steep-sided gorges, and underground streams and caverns of a limestone drainage system rather than the bleak moorland that might be expected at this elevation. At lower levels the larger dales are more richly wooded, and the trees stand out against a background of rugged cliffs of white-gray rocks. On both Pennine flanks, older rocks disappear beneath younger layers, and the uplands merge into flanking coastal lowlands.

The  Cumbrian Mountains, which include the famous Lake District celebrated in poetry by William Wordsworth and the other Lake poets,  constitute an isolated, compact mountain group to the west of the northern Pennines. Many deep gorges, separated by narrow ridges and sharp peaks, characterize the northern Cumbrian Mountains, which consist of tough slate rock. Greater expanses of level upland, formed from thick beds of lava and the ash thrown out by ancient volcanoes, lie to the south. The volcanic belt is largely an irregular upland  traversed by deep, narrow valleys, and it includes England’s highest point, Scafell Pike, with an elevation of 3,210 feet (978 metres), and Helvellyn, at 3,116 feet (950 metres). Nine rivers flowing out in all directions from the centre of this uplifted dome form a classic radial drainage pattern. The valleys, often containing long, narrow lakes, have been widened to a U shape by glacial action, which has also etched corries from the mountainsides and deposited the debris in moraines. Glacial action also created a number of “hanging valleys” by truncating former tributary valleys.

The  South West—England’s largest peninsula—has six conspicuous uplands: Exmoor, where Dunkery Beacon reaches an elevation of 1,704 feet (519 metres); the wild, granite uplands of Dartmoor, which reach 2,038 feet (621 metres) at High Willhays; Bodmin Moor; Hensbarrow; Carn Brea; and the Penwithupland that forms the spectacular extremity of Land’s End. Granite reappears above the sea in the Isles of Scilly, 28 miles (45 km) farther southwest. Despite the variation in elevation, the landscape in the South West, like that of so many other parts of the United Kingdom, has a quite marked uniformity of summit heights, with a high series occurring between 1,000 and 1,400 feet (300 and 430 metres), a middle group between 700 and 1,000 feet (210 and 300 metres), and coastal plateaus ranging between 200 and 400 feet (60 and 120 metres). A network of deep, narrow valleys alternates with flat-topped, steplike areas rising inland. The South West derives much of its renowned physical attraction from its peninsular nature; with both dramatic headlands and magnificent drowned estuaries created by sea-level changes, the coastline is unsurpassed for its diversity.

 

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In south-west England the granite moorlands of Bodmin Moor and Dartmoor and the
Devonian Old Red Sandstone of Exmoor were not covered by ice in the Pleistocene and
their relief is gentle, with long smooth ridges crowned by jagged tors. T

 

Further north still is the Lake District: a mas
s of jagged, sharp-pointed, high-ridged
hills crammed into an area about the same size as Greater London. Most of the Lake Dis
-
trict hills are made of the same volcanic rocks as Snowdonia: this was another centre of
intense volcanic activity. And here again they are butted up against the Silurian and
Ordovician slate and shale which forms the massive rounded plateaux of Skiddaw and
the northern Buttermere fells. Carboniferous limestone forms a ring of lower, smooth-
edged hills around the margins of the Lake Dis
trict; on some of these hills there are large
areas of bare limestone pavement.

 

 


The Pennines form the high spine of northern England. Broad, flat-topped, peat-cov
-
ered Millstone Grit fells eroded into craggy
‘edges’ extend from Edale in Derbyshire to
the Geltsdale Fells just short of the Scottish border. This hard acid rock is interrupted by
the Carboniferous limestone of the Craven Pennines: Ingleborough, Pen-y-Ghent, Foun-
tains Fell, Malham, and the hills around Upper Teesdale

 

 

Further east still are the
Jurassic rocks of the North York Moors, with gentle rolling heather-clad moorlands.

 

Stuwingsregen:

Bergen kunnen regen veroorzaken namelijk stuwingsregen:
Relatief warme, vochtige lucht van zee stijgt op tegen de helling van een berg.
Maar als de lucht stijgt, koelt ze af. De waterdamp condenseert dan tot druppels, vormt wolken, en het gaat regenen.
Aan de lijzijde van het gebergte (in het binnenland) daalt de lucht,
warmt op en wordt droger ( föhn ).

Hoe hoger de berg, hoe sterker dit proces zich voordoet.

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En tot slot: veel wandelplezier !
Piet Smulders, 2018

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