Upland areas in Great Britain .

 

Uplands:
• Ik neem als definitie voor upland: alle land hoger dan 1,000 feet (= 305 m ).
Dit komt ongeveer overeen met alle land above the upper limit of enclosed
farmland

Op de kaart hieronder is het upland geel + bruin.
Die gebieden bevinden zich allemaal ten westen van de witte lijn in de kaart.
(Lowland is lager dan 1,000 feet ( 305 m), groen+lichtgroen op de kaart.)
• In het algemeen geldt voor uplands dat ze:
natter, koeler en winderiger zijn en hun bodems minder productief.
Daar staat tegenover dat er veel mooie en wilde stukken bij zijn.

• The upland zone feels quite different from lowland Britain, both in the physical
make-up of the land and in the cultural imprint which people have made upon it.
The uplands are characterised by older, harder, more resistant rocks, which
form blocks of higher ground.
The climate, tends to be more severe and soils are often less fertile making the
environment less favourable for farming.
From prehistoric times onwards, patterns of land use and settlement developed
which were distinct from, and often complementary to, those of the lowland zone.
• The areas to be included in upland Britain are shown in the map below.
They include regions with significant areas of land above the 1,000 feet
(305 m) contour
together with their associated valleys.
• Towards the north and west of Britain the climate, soils and terrain become
more challenging for plants and animals, so that some areas at quite low altitude
in northern Scotland or the Western Isles still feel part of the upland rather than
the lowland zone.


Informatie over uplands:
http://ww2.rspb.org.uk/Images/uplands_tcm9-166286.pdf
www.wildlifetrusts.org/wildlife/habitats/upland


...Elevation map Great Britain

• Upland areas = land hoger dan 1,000 feet ( 305 m) ( = geel + bruin).
... ( Lowland areas = land lager dan 1,000 feet ( 305 m) ( = groen + lichtgroen).
• The uplands cover about 40% of the UK's land surface.
• The most extensive areas are in Scotland, Northern England and Wales.

• Trek een lijn diagonaal door Engeland van de oostrand van Dartmoor naar de oostrand van de
... North York Moors. De uplands bevinden zich dan allemaal ten westen van die diagonaal.


Belangrijkste upland areas:
.
(van noord naar zuid) . (getal tussen haakjes. is hoogste punt).
(Van Schotland en Wales vind je uitgebreider info op hun eigen pagina's)

Schotland:
.. 1. Highlands and Islands (1345 m),
.. 2. Central Belt (721 m) (alleen een aantal bergrugjes daarin),
.. 3. Southern Uplands (843 m)
...... ( heuvellandschap met karakter van middelgebergte).

Cheviot Hills (815 m) ( in grensgebied Schotland/Engeland).

De hoogvlakten en moors op de as van de Pennines:
.. 1. North Pennines (893 m) ( The Pennines are usually considered to end
.. ... in the north at the River Tyne gap, but the surface features of several
.. ... hills in Northumberland are in many ways similar to those of the
.. ... northern Pennines.)
,
.. 2. Yorkshire dales (736 m),
.. 3. Peak district (636 m) ( Peak District is zuidelijke uiteinde v. d. Pennines).

Lake District (978 m) en North York Moors (454 m) aan weerszijden Penn..

Het bergmassief in Wales:
.. 1. Snowdonia N.P. ( 1085 m),
.. 2. Cambrian Mountains ( 752 m) (+ Shropshire Hills (540 m) (Engeland) ),
.. 3. Brecon Beacons N.P. (886 m).

De moors van Zuidwest-Engeland:
.. 1. Exmoor (519 m),
.. 2. Dartmoor (621 m).


Ten zuidoosten van de diagonaal is alles lowland (lager dan 1,000 ft (305 m).
Bijv. het Cotswold plateau is bijna overal ruim onder de 305 m (slechts enkele topjes steken er bovenuit).
Ook andere heuvelruggen in het zuidoosten behoren tot de lowlands.
Denk aan bijv. North Downs, South Downs, The Chilterns, etc.



Nog beter kun je de uplands van de 3 landen vergelijken met onderstaande kaart:
- Schotland heeft daar niet alleen een zeer groot oppervlak aan upland , maar
.. een groot gedeelte daarvan is zelfs boven de 2,500 ft (760 m).
- Ook zijn er In Schotland aan de westkust eilandjes met een gedeelte boven de
.. 2,500 ft (760 m).

...Upland areas in Great Britain .)(.
.
Upland areas = hoger dan 1,000 feet ( 305 m ) = lichtbruin + donkerbruin


Upland habitats:
Covering about a third of the UK’s land surface, upland habitats form the bulk
of our wildest, most scenic and possibly most romantic countryside.
They are the open habitats of mountains, moors, bogs, heaths and
rough grasslands.

The setting for many atmospheric novels from Wuthering Heights to
The Hound of the Baskervilles.
Most of our upland habitats are found in Scotland, Northern England, Wales,
though there are areas of moorland in South West England and Northern Ireland.
Zie: www.wildlifetrusts.org/wildlife/habitats/upland


Most important habitats:
1. Blanket bog (= spreihoogveen):
2. Upland heath


1. Blanket bog (= spreihoogveen):




As the name suggests, blanket bogs form over a large area and are typically
shallow (1-2 metres).
Blanket bogs form in areas of high rainfall (upland areas) where high levels
of acid leaching occur.
They are called blanket bogs because of their appearance - from a distance they appear homogeneous and they hug the topography like a blanket. Contrary to popular belief, blanket bogs are essentially a man-made feature, if inadvertent and aided somewhat by the climate.
The graphic below is a cross-section of a hypothetical mountainside showing how it evolved into a blanket bog.

...Development .of .Blanket..bogs

Blanket bog is a wet peatland habitat that dominates much of upland Britain.
Although this is a globally restricted habitat type, confined to oceanic
climates, it is one of the most extensive remaining semi-natural habitats in
the UK.
These bogs are of international importance, forming ‘type’ examples for this
globally-restricted habitat. 

Blanket bog is an open habitat almost entirely restricted to the uplands in
England and Wales, but which descends to sea level in parts of Scotland.
It is characteristically underlain by an expansive ‘blanket’ layer of peat.
This develops because the climate is sufficiently cool and damp to allow
peat-forming plants to grow – the litter of which decomposes very slowly
under the permanently water-logged conditions and gradually accumulates
into a layer of peat.
The peat depth and time over which it has accumulated are very variable –
usually it is between 0.5–3 m thick and dates back 5–6,000 years.
The main causes of the spread of blanket bog are debated – although in
some areas this initiated following clearance of the original forest cover by
man, this co-incided with a general natural cooling in climate conditions.

...Blanket..bogs. by. region
• Blanket bogs by region based on 5 km gridded data of blanket peat presence.



2. Upland heath:

Upland heath ( heather moor) in the North York Moors.
Het is unenclosed heideveen dat beheerd wordt voor grouse shooting.

.
Upland heath normally occurs above the upper limit of enclosed agricultural land (generally around 250 - 400 m (but descending to near sea-level in northern Scotland.)
It occurs on mineral soils and thin peats < 0.5 m, and is characterised by a cover of dwarf shrubs of at least 25%.
 
(Blanket bog is distinguished from heathland by its occurrence on
deep peat (> 0.5m).)



 1. HEATHER FAMILY (Heidefamilie):

Er zijn drie belangrijke soorten in de Heidefamilie:

De meest voorkomende heidesoort is:

Calluna vulgaris = Struikhei;
In het Engels: ... Ling .... (Common) Heather .... Scotch Heather
- ze heeft kleine, licht paarsrode bloemen.
- bloeitijd: ongeveer tussen 7 augustus - 7 september.
. hoofdbloei: rond de laatste week van augustus.
. Ze behoort tot het Calluna-geslacht. Kenmerken daarvan zijn:
- bladeren bedekken elkaar dakpansgewijs,
- de plant kan wel 1 m hoog worden.
. (Caluna betekent vegen. Men gebruikte haar takken voor bezems.)


Daarnaast zijn er nog twee belangrijke soorten in het geslacht Erica. Kenmerken daarvan zijn:
- bladeren staan in kransen.
- de plant blijft lager dan 60 cm.

Erica cinerea = Rode dophei
In het Engels: ... Bell Heather
- paarsrode bloemen. Vallen onmiddellijk op door haar felle kleur.
- bloeitijd: vanaf begin juli. Begint dus al vroeger dan Struikhei te
. bloeien.
- Bladeren in kransen van 3.
- staat op de
drogere plekken.

Erica tetralix = Gewone dophei
( In het Engels: Cross-leaved Heath )
- roze bloemen.
- bloeitijd: iets later dan Rode dophei. Bloeit dus ook al vroeger dan
. Struikhei.
- Bladeren in kransen van 4.
- staat op
nattere plekken. (Het is geen "heathland plant", zoals de
. vorige twee, maar een "bogplant".)


(De Rode dophei is voor Nederlanders nieuw; de andere twee kennen
we uit onze eigen heidevelden.)


- Struikhei is de belangrijkste soort langs de Cleveland Way.
- Rode dophei zag je aan de kust groeiend tussen de Struikhei.
- Gewone dophei is er wel aanwezig, maar niet langs deze route.

 

.

 

 

RED GROUSE on the gentle hills:

(
Schots sneeuwhoen; (Lagopus lagopus scoticus)

"Go for a walk on the moors and you will soon be knee-deep in purple
swaying heather, where the whirr
(= gesnor) of a flock of grouse flying
low and fast over the brow of the hill is a lonely drama in a vast scene".

The moors have traditionally been managed to provide an ideal habitat
for red grouse - a famous game bird..(shooting season starts the 12 th
of Aug.
)

The heather is regular burned, creating a patchwork of
old heather which give cover for nests and camouflage for adults, and
fresh, young shoots which they feed on.
The lines of shooting butts are reminder of the grouse shooting season.
.
Schots Sneeuwhoen

...At close rang, the males
.. are seen to have a bold red
.. comb
(= kam) over the ey
...and "pyjama" legs, which
...are covered in white feathers.
..
..
(Denk aan verrekijker ! )

.
When disturbed, the grouse bursts noisily into flight with rapid wing
beats and then flies over the moor in a series of low glides
(= glijpauzes)
and whirring (= snorrende) flight at speed.
Seldom long in flight, it returns to ground with its clear call of
go back, go back, back, back.........
There is no mistaking its warning to "get back ! "


Heath is a semi-natural habitat.
It is natural in the sense that the plants which live there are natural
occurring and not introduced or planted, but man-made in the sense that
man has excluded the trees which would normally grow in such location.
In the absence of grazing by farm animals and deliberate burning,
scrub then woodland would take over.



The main shrubs/dwarf shrub species are:

- Calluna vulgaris = heather 
= Struikhei,

- Erica cinerea = bell heather
= Rode dophei,
- Erica tetralix = cross-leaved heath
= Gewone dophei,

- Vaccinium vitis-idaea = cowberry =
Rode bosbes
- Vaccinium myrtillus = bilberry/blaeberry =
Blauwe bosbes

- Arctostaphylos uva-ursi = bearberry =
Beredruif

- Empetrum nigrum = crowberry = Kraaihei

- Ulex europaeus gorse =
Gaspeldoorn
- Ulex gallii = western gorse =
Westelijke gaspeldoorn
- Ulex minor = dwarf gorse =
Dwerggaspeldoorn

Some upland heath supports abundant:

- Juniperus communis = juniper =  
Jeneverbes.


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En tot slot: veel wandelplezier !
Piet Smulders, 2018

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