.......... UPLANDS IN WALES.

= land lying above the limit of enclosed
(omheind) farmland. Die grens ligt gewoonlijk op grofweg 1,000 feet (±300m) boven zeeniveau.
Het is dus alles boven de Fell wall, m.a.w. de Open fell, dus de Outfield.

Als voorbeeld een boerderij in het Lake District in Noord-Engeland.
Het upland is de Open fell boven de Fell wall, dus de Outfield (het buitengebied, de wildernis, het onbewerkte gebied).

Infield-outfield farming:
Infield-outfield farming is broadly defined as a type of farming system utilizing its area at two different levels of intensity: an intensively farmed infield and an outfield exploited at a low intensity.
(In het Noors noemt men ze Innmark en Utmark)
Infield = het binnengebied, d.w.z.
1. het bewerkte gebied (cultivated land; in cultuur gebrachte gebied).
2. dicht bij de boerderij.
De infield wordt intensief gebruikt. Denk aan ploegen, maaien, bemesten.
Outfield = het buitengebied, de wildernis), d.w.z.
1. het onbewerkte gebied (uncultivated land ; niet in cultuur gebrachte gebied),
2. ver van de boerderij.
De outfield wordt extensief gebruikt bijv. voor 't weiden van vee.

Ook in Nederland kenden we in het verleden infield-outfield farming. Denk aan het esdorpenlandschap, waar de essen(1) en de groenlanden (2) (de graslanden (wei- en hooilanden) in het beekdal) samen de infield vormden. De heide(3) was de outfield.

Upland habitats in Britain:
Covering about a third of the UK’s land surface, upland habitats form the bulk of our wildest, most scenic and possibly most romantic countryside.
They are the open habitats of mountains, moors
(venen), blanket bogs (spreihoogvenen) , heaths and rough grasslands.
The setting for many atmospheric novels from Wuthering Heights to
The Hound of the Baskervilles.
The uplands are characterised by:
1. older, harder, more resistant rocks, which form blocks of higher ground.
2. the soils are often less fertile making them less favourable for farming.
3. the climate, tends to be more severe.

• Top Withens, Haworth Moor.
This ruined farmhouse, is the supposed setting for Wuthering Heights in Emily Bronte's novel.

George Monbiot: Why Britain's barren uplands have farming subsidies to blame.
The hills have been grazed to destruction and it's time we begin to challenge the irrational aspects of the farming funding system.
Zie: www.theguardian.com/e

Video ( 9 minuten):
George Monbiot: hills are 'sheep-wrecked' and in danger
Zie: www.youtube.com/watc

Mooie video: Rewilding (= herwildering) with George Monbiot:
George Monbiot: Cross that bleak plateau and you will see plenty of moorgrass, some tormentil and moss, a few crows, perhaps the odd pipit and skylark, but almost nothing else, except sodding sheep. The hills have been grazed to destruction'.
We zien een frappant verschil tussen de uplands van het Europese vasteland en die van Groot-Brittannië (en Ierland).
Die van het continent zijn bebost (denk bijv. aan de Ardennen). Dat is de normale gang van zaken bij uplands met hun relatief ruige klimaat en arme bodem.
In Groot-Brittannië zijn ze echter niet bebost (denk aan de kale Pennines).
George Monbiot legt in een prachtige lezing uit hoe dat komt. Warm aanbevolen.
Zie: www.youtube.com/watch?v=

...Rewilding (herwildering) = the mass restoration of ecosystems.
(the reintroduction of animal and plant species to habitats 
(leefgebieden) from which they had been excised)

.... Upland areas in Britain:

Op de onderstaande kaart kun je de uplands goed vergelijken tussen Engeland, Schotland en Wales.

...Upland = land lying above the limit of enclosed (omheind) farmland.Die grens ligt gewoonlijk op grofweg 1,000 feet (± 300m) boven zeeniveau.

Er zijn echter gebieden waar geen enclosed farmland is (denk o.a. aan de Northwest Highlands en de Hebriden). Gebruik in dat geval voor de definitie het vegetatie type. Je vindt daar al op veel lagere hoogte vegetatie met een upland-karakter, soms zelfs op zeeniveau.

Schotland en Wales hebben beide relatief veel upland. In Schotland is een groot gedeelte daarvan zelfs boven de 2,500 ft (±760 m).
Ook zijn er in Schotland eilandjes aan de westkust met upland en ook hier is een gedeelte nog boven de 2,500 ft (±760 m) is.

...Upland areas in Britain . (= lichtbruin + donkerbruin)
De uplands zijn in de kaart de licht- en donkerbruine gebieden samen.
• Most of our upland habitats are found in Scotland, Northern England and Wales, though there are some areas of moorland in South West England.
• Towards the north of Britain the climate, soils and terrain become more challenging for plants and animals, so that some areas almost at sea level in Northern Scotland or the Hebrides still feel part of the upland rather. than the lowland zone.


..... What are uplands ?

The British uplands, which cover almost a third of Britain's land surface, encompass a wide range of habitats ranging from places such as:
- the granite tors on Dartmoor, through
- the eroded peat plateau of Kinder Scout (Peak District) to
- the arctic-like plateau of Ben MacDui in Scotland.
Despite the obvious differences between these places each is instantly recognisable as an upland environment, so what do they share in common ?
One important shared characteristic is the absence, or at least the paucity
(= schaarste), of human signs such as roads, buildings and boundaries. They are the closest that we can get to wilderness in Britain.
The adjectives that people use to describe upland habitats depend upon their point of view, but range through words as open, wild, empty, bleak, desolate and hostile.
Each of these adjectives picks up on particular features of upland environments that are a consequence of:
- the absence of cultivation,
- the topography (shape of the land) and
- the climate.
There is little doubt that the upland landscape is valued in Britain since many of the National Parks have a significant amount of upland habitat.

...Upland = land lying above the limit of enclosed (omheind) farmland. .Die grens ligt gewoonlijk op grofweg 1,000 feet (± 300m) boven zeeniveau.

Er zijn echter gebieden waar geen enclosed farmland is (denk o.a. aan de Northwest Highlands en de Hebriden). Gebruik in dat geval voor de definitie het vegetatie type. Je vindt daar al op veel lagere hoogte vegetatie met een upland-karakter, soms zelfs op zeeniveau.

Although the word upland and this definition, implies an altitudinal boundary, the altitude (=hoogte) of the land is really a surrogate for climate, since the position of the boundary between lowland and upland is related to the effect that weather has on plant growth.
The limit of enclosed farmland is an economic threshold, above which it is unprofitable to cultivate the land. Farming close to the boundary is always marginal and changes in agricultural funding could move the boundary up or down the hill.
The boundary between lowland and upland can often appear sharp, with markedly different vegetation above and below the wall or fence
(afrastering) marking the upper limit of a farm.
This sharp transition in vegetation across a farm boundary wall or fence is a consequence of the relatively intensive management that takes place on the farm. The real ecological boundary between the lowlands and the uplands is much more fuzzy but, none the less, real.
Although the uplands are unlikely to suffer from the urbanisation or intensive farming experienced in the lowlands there are other threats that are direct consequence of our actions.
For example, there is habitat degradation brought about by:
- overgrazing,
- commercial afforestation
- recreation
- persecution of wildlife and
- the insidious
(= verraderlijke) effects of acid deposition and global warming.
All of these are a threat to the naturalness of the upland environment and to their value as wilderness areas.

Important upland semi-natural habitats:
Most of the uplands have been modified through grazing, drainage, tree-planting and deposits of atmospheric pollution.
The uplands are perhaps most memorable characterised by a mosaic of bleak, open unenclosed(=niet omheind) landscape of:
1. Blanket bog (=spreihoogveen),
2. Upland Heaths,
3. Upland Grassland


.....1. Blanket bog (=spreihoogveen):

As the name suggests, blanket bogs form over a large area and are typically shallow (a few metres).
They form in areas of high rainfall (upland areas and west coast) where high levels of acid leaching occur.
They are called blanket bogs
(spreihoogvenen) because of their appearance - from a distance they appear homogeneous and they hug the topography like a blanket.
Contrary to popular belief, blanket bogs are essentially a man-made feature, if inadvertent
(onopzettelijk) and aided somewhat by the climate.

Blanket bog (=spreihoogveen): is an open habitat almost entirely restricted to the uplands in England and Wales, but which descends to sea level in parts of Scotland.
It is characteristically underlain by an expansive ‘blanket’ layer of peat.
This develops because the climate is sufficiently cool and damp to allow peat-forming plants to grow – the litter of which decomposes very slowly under the permanently water-logged conditions and gradually accumulates into a layer of peat. (Examples of peat forming species are Sphagnum mosses and cotton grasses
(het geslacht wollegras)).
The peat depth and time over which it has accumulated are very variable – usually it is between 0.5–3 m thick and dates back 5–6,000 years.
The main causes of the spread of blanket bog are debated – although in some areas this initiated following clearance of the original forest cover by man, this co-incided with a general natural cooling in climate conditions.


• Blanket bogs by region based on 5 km gridded data of blanket peat presence.

http://www.peakdistrict.gov.uk. .....

.... 2. Upland heaths :

Upland heath ( heather moor) in the North York Moors.
Het is niet omheind (unenclosed) heideveen dat beheerd wordt voor grouse shooting.


Upland heath occurs on steeper slopes than blanket bog. It occurs on mineral soils and thin peats < 0.5 m, and is characterised by a cover of dwarf shrubs of at least 25%. 
(Blanket bog is distinguished from heathland by its occurrence on deep peat (> 0.5m) and gentler slopes.)

Typical shrub species include:
- Heather (Calluna vulgaris)
- Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus)
(Blauwe bosbes),
- Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum)
(Kraaihei) and
- Bell heather (Erica cinerea)
(Rode dophei).
- Juniper
(Jeneverbes) is often found on upland heaths in northern areas, whilst
- Western gorse (Ulex gallii)
(Westelijke gaspeldoorn) occurs in the south and west.

Wet heath is more commonly found in the north and west where the climate is damper. Here typical plant species are:
- Cross-leaved heath (Erica tetralix)
(Gewone dophei),
- Deer grass (Scirpus cespitosus)
(een Bies-soort),
- Heather and Purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea)
(Pijpenstrootje) ,
- with a carpet of mosses including Sphagnum species
. (Veenmos spp)

http://www.peakdistrict.gov.uk ....

.... 3. Upland grassland:

• Upland acid grassland and rush pasture.

Upland grasslands are the result of human intervention through livestock grazing.
They are found throughout the English uplands and are generally unenclosed and subjected to extensive livestock grazing.
Underlying geology, soil type and historic land use are significant drivers of distribution.
The most common grassland is acid grassland consisting of bents, fescues, mat-grass and wavy-hair grass.
More nutritious grasslands occur on areas of fertile or lime-rich soils

... Belangrijkste upland regions in Wales:
(van noord naar zuid) (het getal tussen haakjes is hun hoogste top).

1. Snowdonia N.P. ( 1085 m),
2. Cambrian Mountains ( 752 m) (+ Shropshire Hills (540 m) (Eng.) ),
3. Brecon Beacons N.P. (886 m). ....


...Upland areas in Wales .)(.


...Upland areas in Wales .)(.

Wales is grotendeels upland.
Alleen de lagere delen langs de kust en in Pembrokeshire zijn lowland.
(Zie bijv. het hoogteprofiel bij mijn pagina van Glyndwr's Way...Daar wandel je tussen de 400 m en 500 m hoogte)

.... Upland = land lying above the limit of enclosed (omheind) farmland.

Die grens ligt gewoonlijk op grofweg 1,000 feet (± 300m) boven zeeniveau.
(Uitgezonderd de westkust. Daar vind je al vegetatie met een upland-karakter ook op lagere hoogte.)

...Nationale parken in Wales .)(.





Wales is hilly, and for the most part, a mountainous country, dominated by the Cambrian Mts , central and north, and by the Brecon Beacons of the south.

• In the Cambrians more than a dozen peaks exceed 3,000 ft (914 m)
(In Schotland noemt men dergelijke bergen Munro ! ).
The highest mountain in Wales, Mt. Snowdon , rises to 1,085 meters.

• Along its eastern border with England, wide river valleys cover the land.

• In the northeast, just above the Dee River, the Clwydian Range(or Clwydian Hills ) are a short 20-mile range of undulating hill and moorland. 

• The Brecon Beacons in the south and southeast are a series of rolling hills, and low mountains, that include the Black Mountains.

• Sandy beaches extend along much of the northern and western coastlines of Wales.
Sea cliffs front the Llŷn Peninsula , as well as the southwestern coastline.

• In the far south, scattered coastal cliffs, rolling hills and wide stretches of sandy beach extend from Pembroke to the western edges of Cardiff. 

• Rugged cliffs, and very wide sandy beaches and dunes front the Gower Peninsula
. ...



Weet je aanvullingen en verbeteringen van deze tekst?
Graag een e-mail naar:


. .... . .... .