.......... UPLANDS IN WALES.

Upland = land lying above the limit of enclosed (omheind) farmland.

Die grens ligt gewoonlijk op grofweg 1,000 feet (± 300m) boven
Uitgezonderd de westkust. Daar vind je al vegetatie met een upland-
karakter ook op lagere hoogte.

In de tekening is het upland alles boven de Fell wall, m.a.w. de Open fell.

George Monbiot: Why Britain's barren uplands have farming subsidies
to blame.

The hills have been grazed to destruction and it's time we begin to
challenge the irrational aspects of the farming funding system.

Nieuw venster www.theguardian.com/environment/georgemonbiot/2013/m.....

Video ( 9 minuten):
George Monbiot: hills are 'sheep-wrecked' and in danger
Nieuw venster

Mooie video: Rewilding with George Monbiot:
George Monbiot:
Cross that bleak plateau and you will see plenty of moorgrass, some
tormentil and moss, a few crows, perhaps the odd pipit and skylark, but
almost nothing else, except sodding sheep. The hills have been grazed to

We zien een frappant verschil tussen de uplands van het Europese
vasteland en die van Groot-Brittannië (en Ierland).
Die van het continent zijn bebost (denk bijvoorbeeld aan de Ardennen).
Dat is de normale gang van zaken bij uplands met hun relatief ruige klimaat
en arme bodem.
In Groot-Brittannië zijn ze echter niet bebost (denk aan de kale Pennines).
George Monbiot legt in een prachtige lezing uit hoe dat komt.
Warm aanbevolen. Nieuw venster www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZHw8yiHD4Iw


Upland areas in Britain:

Op de onderstaande kaart kun je de uplands goed vergelijken tussen Engeland, Schotland en Wales.

Upland = land lying above the limit of enclosed farmland.
(enclosed = omheind)

Die grens ligt gewoonlijk op grofweg 1,000 feet (± 300m)
boven zeeniveau.
Er zijn echter gebieden waar geen enclosed farmland is
(denk o.a. aan de Northwest Highlands en de Hebriden).
Gebruik in dat geval voor de definitie het vegetatie type.
Je vindt daar al op veel lagere hoogte vegetatie met een
upland-karakter, soms zelfs op zeeniveau.

Schotland en Wales hebben beide relatief veel upland. In Schotland
is een groot gedeelte daarvan zelfs boven de 2,500 ft (±760 m).
Ook zijn er in Schotland eilandjes aan de westkust met upland en ook
hier is een gedeelte nog boven de. 2,500 ft (±760 m) is.

...Upland areas in Britain . (= lichtbruin + donkerbruin)
. De uplands zijn de licht- en donkerbruine gebieden samen.
Most of our upland habitats are found in Scotland, Northern England
.. and Wales, though there are some areas of moorland in
.. South West England.

Towards the north of Britain the climate, soils and terrain become
.. more challenging for plants and animals, so that some areas
.. almost at sea level.
in Northern Scotland or the Hebrides
.. still feel part of the upland rather. than the lowland zone.



Belangrijkste upland regions in Wales:
(van noord naar zuid) (het getal tussen haakjes is hun hoogste top).

.. 1. Snowdonia N.P. ( 1085 m),
.. 2. Cambrian Mountains ( 752 m) (+ Shropshire Hills (540 m) (Eng.) ),
.. 3. Brecon Beacons N.P. (886 m).


...Upland areas in Wales .)(.

...Upland areas in Wales .)(.

Wales is grotendeels upland.
Alleen de lagere delen langs de kust en in Pembrokeshire zijn lowland.
( Zie bijv. het hoogteprofiel bij mijn pagina van Glyndwr's Way.
..Daar wandel je tussen de 400 m en 500 m hoogte )

Upland = land lying above the limit of enclosed farmland.
(enclosed = omheind)

Die grens ligt gewoonlijk op grofweg 1,000 feet (± 300m) boven

Nationale parken in Wales.





Wales is hilly, and for the most part, a mountainous country,
.. dominated by the Cambrian Mts , central and north, and
.. by the Brecon Beacons of the south.

In the Cambrians more than a dozen peaks exceed 3,000 ft (914 m)
...( In Schotland noemt men dergelijke bergen Munro ! )
.. The highest mountain in Wales, Mt. Snowdon , rises to 1,085 meters.

Along its eastern border with England, wide river valleys cover the
.. land.

In the northeast, just above the Dee River, the Clwydian Range
.. (or Clwydian Hills ) are a short 20-mile range of undulating hill and
.. moorland. 

The Brecon Beacons in the south and southeast are a series of
.. rolling hills, and low mountains, that include the Black Mountains.

Sandy beaches extend along much of the northern and western
.. coastlines of Wales.
.. Sea cliffs front the Llŷn Peninsula , as well as the southwestern coastline.

In the far south, scattered coastal cliffs, rolling hills and wide stretches
.. of sandy beach extend from Pembroke to the western edges of Cardiff. 

Rugged cliffs, and very wide sandy beaches and dunes front the
.. Gower Peninsula


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1. Snowdonia  in the northwest has the highest mountains, with Snowdon
 at 1,085 m being the highest peak.
To the south of the main range lie the Arenig GroupCadair Idris and the
 Berwyn Mountains.
In the northeast of Wales, between the Clwyd Valley and the Dee Estuary,
lies the Clwydian Range.
The 14 peaks over 3,000 feet (915 m), all in Snowdonia, are known
collectively as the Welsh 3,000s.

2. The Cambrian Mountains run from northeast to southwest and occupy
most of the central part of the country.
These are more rounded and undulating, clad in moorland and rough,
tussocky grassland.

3. In the south of the country are (from west to east):
the Black Mountain, the Brecon Beacons and the Black Mountains 


The  Cambrian Mountains, which form the core of Wales, are clearly defined by the sea except on the eastern side, where a sharp break of slope often marks the transition to the English lowlands. Cycles of erosion have repeatedly worn down the ancient and  austere surfaces. Many topographic features derive from glacial processes, and some of the most striking scenery stems largely from former volcanism. The mountain areas above 2,000 feet (610 metres) are most extensive in North Wales. These include Snowdonia—named for Snowdon, the highest point in Wales, with an elevation of 1,085 metres—and its southeastern extensions, Cader Idris and Berwyn.
With the exception of Plynlimon and the Radnor Forest, central Wales lacks similar high areas, but
the monadnocks of South Wales—notably the Black Mountains and the Brecon Beacons—stand out in solitary splendour above the upland surfaces.

There are three such surfaces: a high plateau of 1,700 to 1,800 feet (520 to 550 metres); a middle peneplain, or worn-down surface, of 1,200 to 1,600 feet (370 to 490 metres); and a low peneplain of 700 to 1,100 feet (210 to 340 metres). These smooth, rounded, grass-covered moorlands present a remarkably even skyline.

Below 700 feet (210 metres) lies a further series of former wave-cut surfaces.

Several valleys radiate from the highland core to the coastal regions. In the west these lowlands have provided a haven for traditional Welsh culture, but the deeply penetrating eastern valleys have channeled English culture into the highland.
A more extensive lowland—physically and structurally an extension of the English lowlands—borders the Bristol Channel in the southeast. The irregularities of the 600-mile (970-km) Welsh coast show differing adjustments to the pounding attack of the sea.




The Brecon Beacons and the Black Mountain in south Wales are also made of Old Red Sandstone, but these hills were glaciated and the scenery is more spectacular, with the hillsides carved out into great precipices and corries.

In mid-Wales the vast undulating bog-clothed ranges of the central Welsh plateaux extend north to

the wild and dramatic ice-etched peaks of Snowdonia, where the soft Silurian and Ordovician slate and shale give way to hard volcanic andesite, diorite and tuff