Upland areas in Wales

 

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...Upland areas in Wales .)(.


...Upland areas in Wales .)(.

Most of Wales is mountainous. Snowdonia (WelshEryri) in the northwest has the highest mountains, with Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa) at 1,085 m (3,560 ft) being the highest peak. To the south of the main range lie the Arenig GroupCadair Idris and the Berwyn Mountains. In the northeast of Wales, between the Clwyd Valleyand the Dee Estuary, lies the Clwydian Range.[1] The 14 (or possibly 15) peaks over 3,000 feet (914 m), all in Snowdonia, are known collectively as the Welsh 3000s.[3]

The Cambrian Mountains run from northeast to southwest and occupy most of the central part of the country. These are more rounded and undulating, clad in moorland and rough, tussocky grassland. In the south of the country are the Brecon Beacons in central Powys, the Black Mountains (Y Mynyddoedd Duon) spread across parts of Powys and Monmouthshire in southeast Wales and, confusingly, Black Mountain (Y Mynydd Du), which lies further west on the border between Carmarthenshire and Powys.[1]

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The  Cambrian Mountains, which form the core of Wales, are clearly defined by the sea except on the eastern side, where a sharp break of slope often marks the transition to the English lowlands. Cycles of erosion have repeatedly worn down the ancient and  austere surfaces. Many topographic features derive from glacial processes, and some of the most striking scenery stems largely from former volcanism. The mountain areas above 2,000 feet (610 metres) are most extensive in North Wales. These include Snowdonia—named for Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa), the highest point in Wales, with an elevation of 3,560 feet (1,085 metres)—and its southeastern extensions, Cader Idris and Berwyn. With the exception of Plynlimon and the Radnor Forest, central Wales lacks similar high areas, but the monadnocks of South Wales—notably the Black Mountains and the Brecon Beacons—stand out in solitary splendour above the upland surfaces. There are three such surfaces: a high plateau of 1,700 to 1,800 feet (520 to 550 metres); a middle peneplain, or worn-down surface, of 1,200 to 1,600 feet (370 to 490 metres); and a low peneplain of 700 to 1,100 feet (210 to 340 metres). These smooth, rounded, grass-covered moorlands present a remarkably even skyline. Below 700 feet (210 metres) lies a further series of former wave-cut surfaces. Several valleys radiate from the highland core to the coastal regions. In the west these lowlands have provided a haven for traditional Welsh culture, but the deeply penetrating eastern valleys have channeled English culture into the highland. A more extensive lowland—physically and structurally an extension of the English lowlands—borders the Bristol Channel in the southeast. The irregularities of the 600-mile (970-km) Welsh coast show differing adjustments to the pounding attack of the sea.

 

The Brecon Bea
-
cons and the Black Mountain in south Wales are also made of Old Red Sandstone, but
these hills were glaciated and the scenery is more spectacular, with the hillsides carved
out into great precipices and corries. In m
id-Wales the vast undulating bog-clothed
ranges of the central Welsh plateaux extend north to the wild and dramatic ice-etched
peaks of Snowdonia, where the soft Silurian
and Ordovician slate and shale give way to
hard volcanic andesite, diorite and tuff.

 

 

 

Geography:

Wales is hilly, and for the most part, a mountainous country, dominated
by the Cambrian Mts , central and north, and
by the Brecon Beacons of the south.

In the Cambrians more than a dozen peaks exceed 3,000 ft (914 meters)
( In Schotland noemt men dergelijke bergen Munro ! )
The highest mountain in Wales, Mt. Snowdon , rises to 1,085 meters.

Along its eastern border with England, wide river valleys cover the land.

In the northeast, just above the Dee River, the Clwydian Range
(or Clwydian Hills ) are a short 20-mile range of undulating hill and moorland. 

The Brecon Beacons in the south and southeast are a series of rolling hills, and low mountains, that include the Black Mountains.

Sandy beaches extend along much of the northern and western coastlines
of Wales.
Sea cliffs front the Llŷn Peninsula , as well as the southwestern coastline.
 
In the far south, scattered coastal cliffs, rolling hills and wide stretches of sandy beach extend from Pembroke to the western edges of Cardiff. 

Rugged cliffs, and very wide sandy beaches and dunes front the
Gower Peninsula

 

Stuwingsregen:

Bergen kunnen regen veroorzaken namelijk stuwingsregen:
Relatief warme, vochtige lucht van zee stijgt op tegen de helling van een berg.
Maar als de lucht stijgt, koelt ze af. De waterdamp condenseert dan tot druppels, vormt wolken, en het gaat regenen.
Aan de lijzijde van het gebergte (in het binnenland) daalt de lucht,
warmt op en wordt droger ( föhn ).

Hoe hoger de berg, hoe sterker dit proces zich voordoet.

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