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.. Upland areas in Scotland


Wordt aan gewerkt !

Uplands :
Dit is alle land hoger dan 1000 feet (= ± 300 m ).
Het omvat ongeveer tweederde van het landoppervlak.

...Upland areas in Scotland..

• Uplands = lichtbruin + donkerbruin = hoger dan 1000 feet (± 300 m )
Lowlands = groen = lager dan 1000 feet (± 300 m )
.. De Lowlands vormen een kuststrook en een grote centrale vlakte: de Central Lowlands
.. ( a rift valley, formed by ancient volcanic eruptions; a relatively flat area punctuated by hills.)

Naast drie grote upland-gebieden ook aantal kleinere op eilanden:
De drie grote upland-gebieden zijn:

1. De Northwest Highlands
... Haar gemiddelde hoogte is niet erg hoog, maar er zijn spectaculaire bergtoppen.
... De hoogste berg is hier Carn Eighe ( 1182 m).

2. De Grampian Mts
... In het oostelijke deel daarvan liggen de Cairngorms. Het is een uitgestrekt
... gebied boven de 1000 m en met de bergtop Ben Macdui ( 1309 m) 
... In het westelijke deel van de Grampians (de Monadhliath Mountains) ligt
... de hoogste berg van Schotland Ben Nevis ( 1343 m)   

... Bovenstaande 2 grote upland-gebieden vormen samen de (Scottish) Highlands.
... Deze Hooglanden worden van elkaar gescheiden door de Great Glen Fault.

3. De Southern Uplands.
... Deze afgeronde bergen zijn minder ruig en hoog dan de Highlands.
... Voor het merendeel zijn ze niet hoger dan 800 meter.
....( Ze worden gescheiden van de Highlands door een centrale vlakte:
..... de Central Lowlands (of Midland Valley), waar de meeste Schotten wonen.

De kleinere upland-gebieden op eilanden zijn:

1. De Northern Isles: Orkney ( 481 m hoogste punt) en Shetland ( 450 m)

2. De Western Isles: Skye ( 992 m) , Arran ( 874m) Rùm ( 810 m)


Scotland contains the majority of mountainous terrain in the UK. The topography of Scotland is distinguished by the Highland Boundary Fault – a geological rock fracture – which traverses the Scottish mainland from Helensburgh to Stonehaven.[5] The faultline separates two distinctively different physiographic regions; namely the Highlands to the north and west and the Lowlands to the south and east.[6] The more rugged Highland region contains the majority of Scotland's mountainous terrain, including the highest peak, Ben Nevis.

Lowland areas, in the southern part of Scotland, are flatter and home to most of the population, especially the narrow waist of land between the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of Forth known as the Central Belt.[6] Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland, although Edinburgh is the capital and political centre of the country.[7] While the Lowlands are less elevated, upland and mountainous terrain is located across the Southern Uplands.



The highland zone

The creation of the highlands was a long process, yet elevations, compared with European equivalents, are low, with the highest summit,  Ben Nevis, only 4,406 feet (1,343 metres) above sea level. In addition, the really mountainous areas above 2,000 feet (600 metres) often form elevated plateaus with relatively smooth surfaces, reminders of the effects of former periods of erosion.

Scotland’s three main topographic regions follow the northeast-to-southwest trend of the ancient underlying rocks. The northern Highlands and the Southern Uplands are separated by the intervening rift valley, or subsided structural block, called the Midland Valley (or Central Lowlands). The core of the Highlands is the elevated, worn-down surface of the  Grampian Mountains, 1,000–3,600 feet (300–1,100 metres) above sea level, with the  Cairngorm Mountains rising to elevations of more than 4,000 feet (1,200 metres). This majestic mountain landscape is furrowed by numerous wide valleys, or straths. Occasional large areas of lowland, often fringed with long lines of sand dunes, add variety to the east. The Buchan peninsula, the Moray Firth estuarine flats, and the plain of Caithness—all low-lying areas—contrast sharply with the mountain scenery and show smoother outlines than do the glacier-scoured landscapes of the west, where northeast-facing hollows, or corries, separated by knife-edge ridges and deep glens, sculpt the surfaces left by earlier erosion. The many freshwater lochs (lakes) further  enhance a landscape of wild beauty. The linear Glen Mor—where the Caledonian Canal now threads the chain of lakes that includes Loch Ness—is the result of a vast structural sideways tear in the whole mass of the North West Highlands. To the northwest of Glen Mor stretches land largely divided among agricultural smallholdings, or crofts; settlement is  intermittent and mostly coastal, a pattern clearly reflecting the pronounced dissection of a highland massif that has been scored and plucked by the Ice Age glaciers. Many sea-drowned, glacier-widened river valleys (fjords) penetrate deeply into the mountains, the  outliers of which rise from the sea in stately, elongated peninsulas or emerge in hundreds of offshore islands.

In comparison with the Scottish Highlands, the  Southern Uplands of Scotland present a more subdued relief, with elevations that never exceed 2,800 feet (850 metres). The main hill masses are the  Cheviots, which reach 2,676 feet (816 metres) in elevation, while only Merrick and Broad Law have elevations above the 2,700-foot (830-metre) contour line. Broad plateaus separated by numerous dales characterize these uplands, and in the west most of the rivers flow across the prevailing northeast-southwest trend, following the general slope of the plateau, toward the Solway Firth or the Firth of Clyde. Bold masses of granite and the rugged imprint of former glaciers occasionally engender mountainous scenery. In the east the valley network of the River Tweed and its many tributaries forms a broad lowland expanse between the Lammermuir and Cheviot hills.

The  Midland Valley lies between great regular structural faults. The northern boundary with the Highlands is a wall-like escarpment, but the boundary with the Southern Uplands is sharp only near the coast. This vast trench is by no means a continuous plain, for high ground—often formed of sturdy, resistant masses of volcanic rock—meets the eye in all directions, rising above the low-lying areas that flank the rivers and the deeply penetrating estuaries of the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of Forth.

The lowland zone

Gauged by the 700-foot (210-metre) contour  line, the lowland zone 

Doe dat niet. Neem de 300 m above sea.

The Highland Boundary Fault:

. http://academic.emporia.edu/aberjame/student/jones1/highweb.htm#top

A geological fault (= breuk) arises from the fracturing of the Earth's sur-
face. This causes rocks to be displaced vertically, horizontally or at some intermediate angle.

A significant geological discontinuity, the Highland Boundary Fault traverses Scotland separating two distinctly different physiographic regions; namely the Highlands from the Midland Valley.
To the north and west lie
hard Pre-Cambrian and Cambrian metamorphic rocks of the Dalradian group and to the the south and east softer, sedimentary rocks of the Devonian and Carboniferous periods, principally the Old Red Sandstone.

Active during the
Caledonian mountain-building episode, a plate tectonic collision which took place from Mid Ordovician to Mid Devonian periods (520 to 400 million years ago), the Highland Boundary Fault allowed the
Midland Valley to descend as a major
rift or graben
(= slenk) by as much as 4000 m. This earlier vertical movement was later replaced by horizontal shear.
A complementary fault, the
Southern Upland Fault, forms the southern boundary of the Midland Valley

Highland Boundary Fault runs southwest-northeast from Arran, across the
Firth of Clyde, via Helensburgh, Loch Lomond, Aberfoyle, the Menteith Hills
to Callander, Comrie and Crieff. It then forms the northern boundary of the
Vale of Strathmore before reaching the east coast at Garron Point, 3 km northeast of Stonehaven.

Bij de
West Highland Way zag je de Highland Boundary Fault bij Loch Lomond. Daar stond je bij Conic Hill op deze scheiding tussen de Highlands en de Lowlands.
Het lidteken was nog goed te zien in een serie, recht achter elkaar liggende, eilanden.
De Highland Boundary Fault gaat midden over Arran.
De Great Glen Fault is een 150 kilometer lange breuk in de aardkorst en grotendeels
.. gevuld met meren. Als een ketting liggen hier in het dal de meren Loch Lochy, Loch Oich
...en het beroemde Loch Ness.

Onderstaande kaart geeft alle uplands van heel Groot-Brittannië:

...Upland areas in Great Britain..
• uplands = lichtbruin + donkerbruin
lowlands = wit.


...UK .Topographic . Map..
Ten oosten van de diagonale lijn is géén upland, maar alleen lowland.
.. Dus de Cotswolds is geen upland. Daar komen slechts enkele plekjes boven de 300 m uit.
.. (bijv. haar hoogste punt Cleeve Hill (330 m). De rest blijft er allemaal ruim onder.



Silurian and Ordovician sedimentary rocks of the types which occur in Wales and
parts of the Lake District form the Southern Uplands of Scotland: gently undulating
ridges with little spectacular scenery, although they are dissected in places by dramatic
cliff-lined glens. In Galloway in the west of this area, granite intrusions form more
rugged hills around Merrick, Cairnsmore of Fleet and Criffel.


To the north of the Silurian and Ordovician hills of the Southern Uplands are the hills
of central Scotland, composed mainly of extrusive igneous rocks of Devonian and Car-
boniferous age. Some of these hills form steep-sided plateaux: the Campsie Fells, the
Ochils and the hills between Glasgow and the Firth of Clyde. The Pentland Hills have a sharper outline and are made partly of Devonian Old Red Sandstone.


The upland scenery of the Scottish High
lands is enormously diverse. ....................................

zie verder blz. 18



Bergen kunnen regen veroorzaken namelijk stuwingsregen:
Relatief warme, vochtige lucht van zee stijgt op tegen de helling van een berg.
Maar als de lucht stijgt, koelt ze af. De waterdamp condenseert dan tot druppels, vormt wolken, en het gaat regenen.
Aan de lijzijde van het gebergte (in het binnenland) daalt de lucht,
warmt op en wordt droger ( föhn ).

Hoe hoger de berg, hoe sterker dit proces zich voordoet.






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