= land lying above the limit of enclosed
(omheind) farmland. Die grens ligt gewoonlijk op grofweg 1,000 feet (±300m) boven zeeniveau.
Het is dus alles boven de Fell wall, m.a.w. de Open fell, dus de Outfield.

Als voorbeeld een boerderij in het Lake District in Noord-Engeland.
Het upland is de Open fell boven de Fell wall, dus de Outfield (het buitengebied, de wildernis, het onbewerkte gebied).

Infield-outfield farming:
Infield-outfield farming is broadly defined as a type of farming system utilizing its area at two different levels of intensity: an intensively farmed infield and an outfield exploited at a low intensity.
(In het Noors noemt men ze Innmark en Utmark)
Infield = het binnengebied, d.w.z.
1. het bewerkte gebied (cultivated land; in cultuur gebrachte gebied).
2. dicht bij de boerderij.
De infield wordt intensief gebruikt. Denk aan ploegen, maaien, bemesten.
Outfield = het buitengebied, de wildernis), d.w.z.
1. het onbewerkte gebied (uncultivated land ; niet in cultuur gebrachte gebied),
2. ver van de boerderij.
De outfield wordt extensief gebruikt bijv. voor 't weiden van vee.

Ook in Nederland kenden we in het verleden infield-outfield farming. Denk aan het esdorpenlandschap, waar de essen(1) en de groenlanden (2) (de graslanden (wei- en hooilanden) in het beekdal) samen de infield vormden. De heide(3) was de outfield.

Upland habitats in Britain:
Covering about a third of the UK’s land surface, upland habitats form the bulk of our wildest, most scenic and possibly most romantic countryside.
They are the open habitats of mountains, moors
(venen), blanket bogs (spreihoogvenen) , heaths and rough grasslands.
The setting for many atmospheric novels from Wuthering Heights to
The Hound of the Baskervilles.
The uplands are characterised by:
1. older, harder, more resistant rocks, which form blocks of higher ground.
2. the soils are often less fertile making them less favourable for farming.
3. the climate, tends to be more severe.

• Top Withens, Haworth Moor.
This ruined farmhouse, is the supposed setting for Wuthering Heights in Emily Bronte's novel.

George Monbiot: Why Britain's barren uplands have farming subsidies to blame.
The hills have been grazed to destruction and it's time we begin to challenge the irrational aspects of the farming funding system.
Zie: www.theguardian.com/e

Video ( 9 minuten):
George Monbiot: hills are 'sheep-wrecked' and in danger
Zie: www.youtube.com/watc

Mooie video: Rewilding (= herwildering) with George Monbiot:
George Monbiot: Cross that bleak plateau and you will see plenty of moorgrass, some tormentil and moss, a few crows, perhaps the odd pipit and skylark, but almost nothing else, except sodding sheep. The hills have been grazed to destruction'.
We zien een frappant verschil tussen de uplands van het Europese vasteland en die van Groot-Brittannië (en Ierland).
Die van het continent zijn bebost (denk bijv. aan de Ardennen). Dat is de normale gang van zaken bij uplands met hun relatief ruige klimaat en arme bodem.
In Groot-Brittannië zijn ze echter niet bebost (denk aan de kale Pennines).
George Monbiot legt in een prachtige lezing uit hoe dat komt. Warm aanbevolen.
Zie: www.youtube.com/watch?v=

...Rewilding (herwildering) = the mass restoration of ecosystems.
(the reintroduction of animal and plant species to habitats 
(leefgebieden) from which they had been excised)


.... Upland areas in Britain:

Op de onderstaande kaart kun je de uplands goed vergelijken tussen Engeland, Schotland en Wales.

...Upland = land lying above the limit of enclosed (omheind) farmland.Die grens ligt gewoonlijk op grofweg 1,000 feet (± 300m) boven zeeniveau.

Er zijn echter gebieden waar geen enclosed farmland is (denk o.a. aan de Northwest Highlands en de Hebriden). Gebruik in dat geval voor de definitie het vegetatie type. Je vindt daar al op veel lagere hoogte vegetatie met een upland-karakter, soms zelfs op zeeniveau.

Schotland en Wales hebben beide relatief veel upland. In Schotland is een groot gedeelte daarvan zelfs boven de 2,500 ft (±760 m).
Ook zijn er in Schotland eilandjes aan de westkust met upland en ook hier is een gedeelte nog boven de 2,500 ft (±760 m) is.

...Upland areas in Britain . (= lichtbruin + donkerbruin)
De uplands zijn in de kaart de licht- en donkerbruine gebieden samen.
• Most of our upland habitats are found in Scotland, Northern England and Wales, though there are some areas of moorland in South West England.
• Towards the north of Britain the climate, soils and terrain become more challenging for plants and animals, so that some areas almost at sea level in Northern Scotland or the Hebrides still feel part of the upland rather. than the lowland zone.

... Suggested upland areas - James Fenton..


Large-scale landscapes with upland character throughout
1. Highlands and Islands
(hoogste top 1345 m)
2. Southern Uplands
(hoogste top 843 m)
....(een heuvellandschap met het karakter van een middelgebergte).
3. Galloway Hills
( Note: The Galloway Hills and Southern Uplands could be combined as one unit, although there are differences between the two areas.

Localised hills arising above landscapes of intensive farmed or urban land:
(the last remaining moorland in lowland Scotland)
4. Hill of Fishie
5. Sidlaws
6. Ochils
(hoogste top 720 m)
7. Lomond Hills (could include Benarty Hill)
8. Cleish Hills
9. Campsie, Kilsyth & Gargunnock Hills
10. Clyde Muirshiel Hills
11. Lammermuirs
12. Screel & Criffel

Because the uplands are generally dominated by semi-natural moorland vegetation, and in the lowlands such moorland has been lost through agricultural improvement, then the current location of moorland provides a good indication of landscapes of an upland character.
Hence it is suggested that the uplands here defined as landscapes where 'moorland is the dominant vegetation type' as delineated on the map.
There are areas in the north and west of Scotland that could be described as upland in character due to vegetation, but are at a low altitude.

This is not a perfect definition because in some areas, particularly Galloway and Argyll, forestry or woodland plantations now dominate a landscape which would still naturally be moorland . Hence this map includes these afforested areas.

Additionally, there are some localities within the larger areas of ‘uplands’ (Type A above) where there is a significant presence of agriculturally - improved land, such as Mainland Orkney or the Campbeltown area


..... What are uplands ?

The British uplands, which cover almost a third of Britain's land surface, encompass a wide range of habitats ranging from places such as:
- the granite tors on Dartmoor, through
- the eroded peat plateau of Kinder Scout (Peak District) to
- the arctic-like plateau of Ben MacDui in Scotland.
Despite the obvious differences between these places each is instantly recognisable as an upland environment, so what do they share in common ?
One important shared characteristic is the absence, or at least the paucity
(= schaarste), of human signs such as roads, buildings and boundaries. They are the closest that we can get to wilderness in Britain.
The adjectives that people use to describe upland habitats depend upon their point of view, but range through words as open, wild, empty, bleak, desolate and hostile.
Each of these adjectives picks up on particular features of upland environments that are a consequence of:
- the absence of cultivation,
- the topography (shape of the land) and
- the climate.
There is little doubt that the upland landscape is valued in Britain since many of the National Parks have a significant amount of upland habitat.

...Upland = land lying above the limit of enclosed (omheind) farmland. .Die grens ligt gewoonlijk op grofweg 1,000 feet (± 300m) boven zeeniveau.

Er zijn echter gebieden waar geen enclosed farmland is (denk o.a. aan de Northwest Highlands en de Hebriden). Gebruik in dat geval voor de definitie het vegetatie type. Je vindt daar al op veel lagere hoogte vegetatie met een upland-karakter, soms zelfs op zeeniveau.


Although the word upland and this definition, implies an altitudinal boundary, the altitude (=hoogte) of the land is really a surrogate for climate, since the position of the boundary between lowland and upland is related to the effect that weather has on plant growth.
The limit of enclosed farmland is an economic threshold, above which it is unprofitable to cultivate the land. Farming close to the boundary is always marginal and changes in agricultural funding could move the boundary up or down the hill.
The boundary between lowland and upland can often appear sharp, with markedly different vegetation above and below the wall or fence
(afrastering) marking the upper limit of a farm.
This sharp transition in vegetation across a farm boundary wall or fence is a consequence of the relatively intensive management that takes place on the farm. The real ecological boundary between the lowlands and the uplands is much more fuzzy but, none the less, real.
Although the uplands are unlikely to suffer from the urbanisation or intensive farming experienced in the lowlands there are other threats that are direct consequence of our actions.
For example, there is habitat degradation brought about by:
- overgrazing,
- commercial afforestation
- recreation
- persecution of wildlife and
- the insidious
(= verraderlijke) effects of acid deposition and global warming.
All of these are a threat to the naturalness of the upland environment and to their value as wilderness areas.

Important upland semi-natural habitats:
Most of the uplands have been modified through grazing, drainage, tree-planting and deposits of atmospheric pollution.
The uplands are perhaps most memorable characterised by a mosaic of bleak, open unenclosed(=niet omheind) landscape of:
1. Blanket bog (=spreihoogveen),
2. Upland Heaths,
3. Upland Grassland


.....1. Blanket bog (=spreihoogveen):

As the name suggests, blanket bogs form over a large area and are typically shallow (a few metres).
They form in areas of high rainfall (upland areas and west coast) where high levels of acid leaching occur.
They are called blanket bogs
(spreihoogvenen) because of their appearance - from a distance they appear homogeneous and they hug the topography like a blanket.
Contrary to popular belief, blanket bogs are essentially a man-made feature, if inadvertent
(onopzettelijk) and aided somewhat by the climate.

Blanket bog (=spreihoogveen): is an open habitat almost entirely restricted to the uplands in England and Wales, but which descends to sea level in parts of Scotland.
It is characteristically underlain by an expansive ‘blanket’ layer of peat.
This develops because the climate is sufficiently cool and damp to allow peat-forming plants to grow – the litter of which decomposes very slowly under the permanently water-logged conditions and gradually accumulates into a layer of peat. (Examples of peat forming species are Sphagnum mosses and cotton grasses
(het geslacht wollegras)).
The peat depth and time over which it has accumulated are very variable – usually it is between 0.5–3 m thick and dates back 5–6,000 years.
The main causes of the spread of blanket bog are debated – although in some areas this initiated following clearance of the original forest cover by man, this co-incided with a general natural cooling in climate conditions.


• Blanket bogs by region based on 5 km gridded data of blanket peat presence.

http://www.peakdistrict.gov.uk. .....

.... 2. Upland heaths :

Upland heath ( heather moor) in the North York Moors.
Het is niet omheind (unenclosed) heideveen dat beheerd wordt voor grouse shooting

Upland heath occurs on steeper slopes than blanket bog. It occurs on mineral soils and thin peats < 0.5 m, and is characterised by a cover of dwarf shrubs of at least 25%. 
(Blanket bog is distinguished from heathland by its occurrence on deep peat (> 0.5m) and gentler slopes.)

Typical shrub species include:
- Heather (Calluna vulgaris)
- Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus)
(Blauwe bosbes),
- Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum)
(Kraaihei) and
- Bell heather (Erica cinerea)
(Rode dophei).
- Juniper
(Jeneverbes) is often found on upland heaths in northern areas, whilst
- Western gorse (Ulex gallii)
(Westelijke gaspeldoorn) occurs in the south and west.

Wet heath is more commonly found in the north and west where the climate is damper. Here typical plant species are:
- Cross-leaved heath (Erica tetralix)
(Gewone dophei),
- Deer grass (Scirpus cespitosus)
(een Bies-soort),
- Heather and Purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea)
(Pijpenstrootje) ,
- with a carpet of mosses including Sphagnum species
. (Veenmos spp)

http://www.peakdistrict.gov.uk ....

.... 3. Upland grassland:

• Upland acid grassland and rush pasture.

Upland grasslands are the result of human intervention through livestock grazing.
They are found throughout the English uplands and are generally unenclosed and subjected to extensive livestock grazing.
Underlying geology, soil type and historic land use are significant drivers of distribution.
The most common grassland is acid grassland consisting of bents, fescues, mat-grass and wavy-hair grass.
More nutritious grasslands occur on areas of fertile or lime-rich soils


De uplands zijn ecologisch niet gezond:
Het bos op de Schotse Hooglanden sterft uit.
Bejaarde bomen gaan dood en jonge bomen worden opgegeten.

In tegenstelling tot wat veel mensen denken, heeft Schotland er niet altijd zo kaal uitgezien. Aan het begin van de Middeleeuwen waren grote delen van het land nog bedekt door de voor Schotland karakteristieke grove den, en ook loofbomen als ratelpopulier, wilg, eik en berk.
Maar de bevolking groeide, en daarmee ook de behoefte aan hout om huizen te bouwen, en die warm te houden. De bossen moesten ook plaats maken voor landbouwgrond.
Toen Schotland daarnast nog maritieme ambities kreeg, was de kaalslag helemaal niet meer te stoppen. Er werd jacht gemaakt op de laatste grove dennen, die essentieel waren voor de scheepsbouw.
Van die maritieme ambities is niet veel gekomen, uiteindelijk moest Schotland het onderspit delven tegen zuiderbuur Engeland.
Tijdens de zogenaamde highland clearances in de achttiende en negentiende eeuw verdwenen naast de bomen ook de mensen.
Onder druk van de Engelsen werden hele Schotse gemeenschappen gedeporteerd naar de kust.
Op de Schotse highlands lieten de Engelsen schapen los die het gebied vakkundig leegvraten en uitputten. Wat overbleef, waren de crofts, in onderpacht bewerkte gronden, en hier en daar een boom die alles door een mirakel had overleefd. Alleen op afgelegen plekken, steile berghellingen die niet interessant waren voor de landbouw, overleefden kleine plukjes bos.
Tegenwoordig vormen niet alleen schapen een probleem. Er zijn daarnaast ook nog 400.000 edelherten.
The uplands are an inherently infertile region,
- devastated by deforestation and repeated burning,
- largely depopulated and then
- opened to heavy and uncontrolled sheep grazing.

Bringing them back into a good ecological health means reduction of deer numbers, grouse moors and sheep farming.

Glen Affric,
beschermd gebied. Zo moet Schotland er vroeger uit hebben gezien.

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